Aptos and Diem are both layer-1 blockchains that use the Move programming language, which was developed by Meta’s Diem developers. However, there are some key differences between them:
Purpose: Diem is a global payment system that aims to create a more inclusive and accessible financial infrastructure. Diem is backed by a reserve of fiat currencies and operates under a permissioned governance model. Aptos is a general-purpose smart contract platform that aims to bring adoption to web3 and empower an ecosystem of decentralized apps to solve real-world problems. Aptos is powered by its native token APT, which is subject to market forces and operates under a permissionless consensus model.
Performance: Diem claims to achieve high throughput and low latency by using a Byzantine Fault Tolerant (BFT) consensus protocol called DiemBFT. DiemBFT can process thousands of transactions per second with a finality time of 10 seconds. Aptos claims to achieve higher performance by using a novel technique called parallel execution, which allows transactions to be processed in parallel rather than sequentially. Aptos also uses a variant of BFT consensus called AptosBFT, which can handle network partitions and forks better than DiemBFT. Aptos aims to reach 160,000 transactions per second with a finality time of 1 second .
Security: Diem ensures the security and correctness of smart contracts by using Move, a safe and expressive language that prevents common errors such as double-spending, reentrancy, and asset loss. Diem also uses a modular verification system that can formally verify the properties of smart contracts at the bytecode level. Aptos enhances the security and reliability of smart contracts by using Move as well as a detection system that can identify and warn users of malicious or underperforming smart contracts. Aptos also uses a reputation system that can rank smart contracts based on their quality and trustworthiness .
These are some of the main differences between Aptos and Diem. Both blockchains have their own strengths and weaknesses, and they target different use cases and audiences.